ICPS 2020 Nobel Laureates
Prof. Dr. Klaus von Klitzing
Prof. Dr. Klaus von Klitzing was born on 28th June 1943 in Schroda. Klaus von Klitzing studied Physics at the Technical University of Braunschweig. He continued his scientific career at the University of Würzburg, receiving his doctorate in 1972 and his habilitation in 1978. Subsequently, he was appointed professor at the Technical University of Munich (1980-1984), before becoming both Honorarprofessor (part-time prof.) at the University of Stuttgart and Director and Scientific Member at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in 1985. During his scientific career, Klaus von Klitzing had research stays at the University of Oxford, England, at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Grenoble, France, and at the IBM Research Lab in the Yorktown Heights, USA.
In 1985, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Klaus von Klitzing “for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect”. Click here to view Prof. Klaus von Klitzing’S curriculum vitae.
Prof. Shuji Nakamura
Prof. Shuji Nakamura was born on May 22, 1954 in Ehime, Japan. He obtained B.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Tokushima, Japan in 1977, 1979, and 1994, respectively. He joined Nichia Chemical Industries Ltd in 1979. In 1988, he spent a year at the University of Florida as a visiting research associate.In 1989 he started the research of blue LEDs using group-III nitride materials. In 1990, he developed a novel MOCVD system for GaN growth, which was named Two-Flow MOCVD. Using this system, he could grow the highest crystal quality GaN-based materials. From his perspective, the invention of Two-Flow MOCVD was the biggest breakthrough in his life and his GaN-based research. In 1991, he obtained p-type GaN films by thermal annealing for the first time and finally he could clarify the Hydrogen passivation as a hole compensation mechanism for the first time. This hydrogen passivation of the acceptors had hindered to obtain p-type GaN films since the beginning of GaN research in 1960s done by many researchers.
In 1992, he also could grow the first InGaN single crystal layers which showed the first band to band emission in PL and EL at room temperature. These InGaN layers have been used for an emitting layer of all of the blue/green/white LEDs and all of the violet/blue/green semiconductor lasers. Without his invention of InGaN layers, there have been no blue/green/white LEDs and no violet/blue/green semiconductor laser diodes.
In 1993 and 1995 he developed the first group-III nitride-based high-brightness blue/green LEDs. He also developed the first group-III nitride-based violet laser diodes (LDs) in 1995. In 1996, his former company, Nichia, started selling white LEDs using his invention of blue LEDs. These white LEDs have been used for all kinds of lighting applications in order to save energy consumptions. The electric consumption of white LEDs is about one tenth in comparison with that of conventional incandescent bulb lamp nowadays. In 1999, Nichia started selling the violet laser diodes for the application of blue-ray DVDs. Without his invention of violet laser diodes, the blue ray DVD was not realized.
Professor Nakamura had received numerous awards for his work, including the Nishina Memorial Award (1996), the Materials Research Society Medal Award (1997), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Jack A. Morton Award, the British Rank Prize (1998), the Benjamin Franklin Medal Award (2002), the Millennium Technology Prize (2006), the Czochralski Award (2007), the Prince of Asturias Award for Technical Scientific Research (2008), The Harvey Award (2009), and the Technology & Engineering Emmy Award (2012) awarded by The National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (NATAS). He is the 2014 Nobel Laureate in Physics for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources. Prof. Nakamura is a fellow of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Inventors, and the National Inventors Hall of Fame. He is the recipient of the 2014 Order of Culture Award in Japan, the 2015 Charles Stark Draper Prize for Engineering, the 2015 Global Energy Prize and the 2018 Zayed Future Energy Prize. Since 2000, he has been a professor of Materials and Electrical & Computer Engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He holds more than 200 US patents and over 300 Japanese patents. He has published over 550 papers in his field. Prof. Nakamura is the Research Director of the Solid State Lighting & Energy Electronics Center and The Cree Chair in Solid State Lighting & Displays. He co-founded Soraa, Inc. in 2008, which operates vertically integrated fabrication facilities in California’s Silicon Valley and Santa Barbara.
ICPS 2020 Plenary Speakers
Prof. Giulia Galli
Prof. Giulia Galli is the Liew Family professor of Electronic Structure and Simulations in the Institute for Molecular Engineering and Professor of Chemistry at the University of Chicago. She also holds a Senior Scientist position at Argonne National Laboratory, where she is the director the Midwest Integrated Center for Computational Materials. Prior to joining UChicago, she was Professor of Chemistry and Physics at UC Davis (2005-2013) and the head of the Quantum Simulations group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, 1998-2005). She holds a Ph.D. in Physics from the International School of Advanced Studies in Italy. She is a Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) and American Association for the Advancement of Science. She is the recipient of the LLNL Science and Technology Award, the Department of Energy Award of Excellence, the 2018 Materials Research Society Theory Award, and the 2019 APS David Adler Lectureship in Materials Physics.
Prof. Allan H. MacDonald
Allan H. MacDonald received his B.Sc. degree from St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada in 1973, and M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the University of Toronto in 1974 and 1978. He was a member of the research staff of the National Research Council of Canada from 1978 to 1987 and has taught at Indiana University (1987-2000) and the University of Texas at Austin (2000-present) where he now holds the Sid W. Richardson Chair in Physics. He has contributed to research on electronic structure theory, the quantum Hall effect, magnetism, and superconductivity, among a variety of other topics. Dr. MacDonald is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the US National Academy of Sciences and has been awarded the Herzberg Medal (1987), the Buckley Prize (2007), and the Ernst Mach Honorary Medal (2012).